**a) In formulating hypotheses for a statistical test of significance, the null hypothesis is often:**

**– The likelihood of seeing the data that actually got.- A claim that all of the data are $ 0 $.**

**– A declaration of “no effect” or “no difference”.**

**– $ 0.05 $.**

**b) Which of following would be robust evidence against with the null hypothesis when testing hypotheses?**

**– A low level of relevance was used.**

**– The acquisition of data with a high P-value.**

**– Obtaining information with a low P-value.**

**– Utilizing a high degree of relevance.**

**c) A test of the null hypothesis’s P-value is:**

**– The likelihood that the null hypothesis is incorrect.**

**– The likelihood that the null hypothesis is correct.**

**– The likelihood that test statistics will assume a number at least as high as what was actually observed if the null hypothesis remains correct.**

This question aims to select the **best choice** for the **hypotheses** from the **given options**.

This question uses the concept of** Null hypotheses**. A **statistical hypothesis** known as a “null hypothesis” asserts that **no statistical significance** can be **found** in a **particular set of observations**.

## Expert Answer

a) The **null hypothesis in hypothesis testing is known as the declaration that there is no impact of the therapy or that there is no statistically significant difference**. So the **correct option** is:

A **declaration** of “**no effect**” or “**no difference**“

b) So because the **null hypothesis** is** false** when the p-value** is less** than the **significance level**, there would be **significant evidence** against the null hypothesis as the threshold of significance **increased**. The correct answer for** this statement** is:

**Utilizing** a **high degree** of relevance.

c) The probability that the **test statistic** would assume a value at **least** as **extreme** as what has actually been seen if the **null hypothesis** were **true** is known as the **p-value** of the **hypothesis**. So the** correct answer** is the likelihood that** test statistic** will assume a number at least as high as what was actually observed if the **null hypothesis remains correct**.

## Numerical Answer

The correct options are:

A **declaration** of “**no effect**” or “**no difference**“.

Utilizing a **high degree of relevance**.

The **likelihood** that **test statistics** will assume a** number** at least as **high** as what was **actually observed** if the** null hypothesis** remains correct.

## Example

The declaration there is no **impact** of the therapy or that there is **no statistically significant difference** is known as the **null hypothesis** in hypothesis testing. Choose the **correct option** from the given** multiple options**.

– a statement of **no difference** or **no consequence** .

– Utilizing a **high degree** of relevance.

– The likelihood that the **null hypothesis** is incorrect.

– The likelihood that the **null hypothesis** is **correct**.

– The **likelihood of seeing** the data that **actually got**.

The **declaration** there is **no impact** of the therapy or that there is n**o statistically significant** difference is known as the** null hypothesis** in** hypothesis testing**. So the **correct option** is:

**A statement of no difference or no consequence. **

Hence, the** final and correct option** is:

**A statement of no difference or no consequence**.